Rio + 20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

Rio+20United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, will be held inRio de Janeiro, Brazil, on June 20-22, 2012

United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

 

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In 2012 the United Nations will convene the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, also known as Rio 2012 or Rio+20, hosted byBrazil in Rio de Janeiro, as a 20-year follow-up to the historic 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) that was held in the same city. The conference is organized by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

The decision to hold the conference in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro was made by UN General Assembly Resolution A/RES/64/236 on 24 December 2009.[1]

Contents

[edit] Background

Rio+20 is a key milestone in a series of major United Nations conferences, in which the 1992 Earth Summit / United Nations Conference on Environment and Development was the centerpiece, putting sustainable development as a top priority on the agenda of the United Nations and the international community.

[edit] Objectives

The conference has three objectives.

  1. Securing renewed political commitment to sustainable development.
  2. Assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting already agreed commitments.
  3. Addressing new and emerging challenges.

[edit] Conference Themes

The conference has two themes agreed upon by the member states.

  1. Green economy within the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.
  2. Institutional framework for sustainable development.

[edit] Calendar of Meetings

[edit] 1st Preparatory Committee

Held from 16-18 May 2010 , immediately after the conclusion of the eighteenth session and the first meeting of the nineteenth session of the Commission.

[edit] 1st Intersessional

Held from January 10–11, 2011 at UN Headquarters, New York, the Intersessional focused on discussion of the objectives of the conference, and its two principle themes. The Intersessional – not a negotiation session – featured panel discussions, from academia, non-governmental organizations as well as Delegates and UN system representatives.

[edit] 2nd Preparatory Committee

Held from 7-9 March 2011, at United Nations Headquarters in New York, immediately following the Intergovernmental Policy Meeting for the 19th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development.[31]

[edit] 2nd Intersessional

Will be held from 15-16 December 2011 at United Nations Headquarters in New York.[32]

[edit] 3rd Intersessional

Will be held from 5-7 March 2012 at United Nations Headquarters in New York.[33]

[edit] 3rd Preparatory Committee

Will be held from 13-15 June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the week immediately before the UN Conference on Sustainable Development.[34]

[edit] United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

The conference will be held from 20-22 June 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

[edit] External links

[edit] Related Links

[edit] References

  1. ^ A/RES/64/236: 64/236. Implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development http://www.un-documents.net/ares64-236.pdf
  2. ^ Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, A/CONF.48/14/Rev.1, Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972.http://www.un-documents.net/aconf48-14r1.pdf
  3. ^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, A/CONF.48/14/Rev.1, Chapter I http://www.un-documents.net/unchedec.htm http://www.un-documents.net/unche-dec.pdf
  4. ^ Action Plan for the Human Environment, A/CONF.48/14/Rev.1, Chapter II http://www.un-documents.net/aphe.htm http://www.un-documents.net/aphe.pdf
  5. ^ Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Annex to A/42/427, Development and International Co-operation: Environment, August 1987. http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm
  6. ^ Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, A/CONF.151/26, Resolution 1, Annex II, http://www.un-documents.net/rio-dec.htm
  7. ^ Agenda 21, A/CONF.151/26, Resolution 1, Annex II, http://www.un-documents.net/agenda21.htm
  8. ^ Institutional arrangements to follow up the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, General Assembly Resolution A/RES/47/191, New York, December 1992 http://www.un-documents.net/a47r191.htm
  9. ^ Establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development, ECOSOC Resolution 1993/207, New York, February 1993 http://www.un-documents.net/1993-207.htm
  10. ^ Commission on Sustainable Development web sitehttp://www.un.org/esa/dsd/csd/csd_aboucsd.shtml
  11. ^ Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21, General Assembly Resolution A/RES/S-19/2 http://www.un-documents.net/s19r2.htm http://www.un-documents.net/ares-s19-2.pdf
  12. ^ Convention on Biological Diversityhttp://www.cbd.int/convention/text/
  13. ^ United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change. A.AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add.l, Annex I & Corr.1, 15 May 1992.http://www.un-documents.net/unfccc.htm http://www.un-documents.net/unfccc.pdf
  14. ^ UNFCCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change web site. http://www.unfccc.int
  15. ^ Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States. A.CONF.167/9, Bridgetown, Barbados, 6 May 1994. http://www.un-documents/aconf167-9.pdf
  16. ^ Barbados Declaration and Programme of Action. A.CONF.167/9, Chapter I, Resolution 1. Bridgetown, Barbados, 6 May 1994. http://www.un-documents.net/barbados-declaration-and-programme-of-action.pdf
  17. ^ SIDSnet : Small Island Developing States Network web site.http://www.sidsnet.org/
  18. ^ Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa . A/AC.241/27, http://www.un-documents.net/a-ac241-27.pdf
  19. ^ UNCCD – United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification web sitehttp://www.unccd.int
  20. ^ Report of the World Summit on Social Development, A/CONF.166/9, 19 April 1995 http://www.un-documents.net/aconf166-9.pdf
  21. ^ Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development A/CONF.166/9, Chapter I, Annex I. http://www.un-documents.net/copenhagen-declaration.pdf
  22. ^ Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development. in A/CONF.166/9, Chapter I, Annex II. http://www.un-documents.net/wssd-poa.htm http://www.un-documents.net/wssd-programme-of-action.pdf
  23. ^ Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, A/CONF.177/20/Rev.1, Beijing, China, September 1995. http://www.un-documents.net/aconf177-20r1.pdf
  24. ^ Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, A/CONF.177/20/Rev.1, Chapter I http://www.un-documents.net/beijing-declaration-and-platform-for-action.pdf
  25. ^ Report of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), A/CONF.165/14. Istanbul, 3-14 June 1996 http://www.un-documents.net/aconf165-14.pdf
  26. ^ Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements, A/CONF.165/14, Chapter I, Annex 1. http://www.un-documents.net/ist-dec.htm
  27. ^ The Habitat Agenda, A/CONF.165/14, Chapter I, Annex 1.http://www.un-documents.net/hab-ag.htm http://www.un-documents.net/habitat-agenda.pdf Retrieved 7 February 2011
  28. ^ Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development , A/CONF.199/20, 4 September 2002 http://www.un-documents.net/aconf199-20.pdf
  29. ^ Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development, A/CONF.199/20, Chapter I, Resolution 1, Annex. http://www.un-documents.net/jburgdec.htmhttp://www.un-documents.net/johannesburg-declaration.pdf
  30. ^ Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, in A/CONF.199/20, Chapter I, Resolution 2, Annex. Annex. http://www.un-documents.net/jburgpln.htmhttp://www.un-documents.net/jpoi.pdfhttp://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD_POI_PD/English/POIToc.htm
  31. ^ Preparatory Commission Meetings, UNCSD 2012http://www.uncsd2012.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=72&Itemid=123 Retrieved 2 February 2011
  32. ^ 2nd Intersessional Meeting,UNCSDhttp://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&type=13&nr=42&menu=46
  33. ^ 3rd Intersessional Meeting, UNCSDhttp://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&type=13&nr=46&menu=46
  34. ^ 3rd Preparatory Committee, UNCSDhttp://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&type=13&nr=49&menu=46

 

Proposal of Bolivia to Rio+20

The Rights of Nature

Theproposals developed by the Plurinational State of Bolivia bring together andbuild upon the progress made in the World Charter for Nature  (1982), theRio Declaration (1994), the Earth Charter (2000), and the World People’sConference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth (2010):

I. A DEEPER COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY

1. Inthis century, the central challenges of sustainable development are: on the onehand, to overcome poverty and the tremendous inequalities that exist and, onthe other hand, reestablish the equilibrium of the Earth system. Bothobjectives are intrinsically linked and one cannot be reached independently ofthe other.

2. It isessential to recognize and affirm that growth has limits. The pursuit ofunending development on a finite planet is unsustainable and impossible. Thelimit to development is defined by the regenerative capacity of the Earth’svital cycles. When growth begins to break that balance, as we see with globalwarming, we can no longer speak of it as development, but rather, the deteriorationand destruction of our home. A certain level of growth and industrialization isneeded to satisfy basic needs and guarantee the human rights of a population,but this level of “necessary development” is not about permanent growth, butrather, balance among humans and with nature.

3. Newtechnologies will not allow unending economic growth. Scientific advances,under some circumstances, can contribute to resolve certain problems ofdevelopment but can’t ignore the natural limits of the Earth system.

4. Themain challenge for the eradication of poverty is not to grow forever, but toachieve an equitable distribution of the wealth that is possible under thelimits of the Earth system. In a world in which 1% of the population controls50% of the wealth of the planet, it will not be possible to eradicate povertyor restore harmony with nature.

5.Sustainable development seeks to eradicate poverty in order to live well, notgenerate wealthy people who live at the expense of the poor. The goal is thesatisfaction of basic human needs in order to allow for the development ofhuman capabilities and human happiness, strengthening community among humanbeings and with Mother Earth.

6. Toend poverty and achieve an equitable distribution of wellbeing, the basicresources and companies should be in the hands of the public sector andsociety. Only a society that controls its principal sources of income canaspire to a just distribution of the benefits needed to eliminate poverty.

7. Theso-called “developed” countries must reduce their levels of over-consumptionand overexploitation of resources of the world in order to reestablish harmonyamong human beings and with nature, allowing for the sustainable development ofall developing countries.

8. Developingcountries should realize their right to development following patterns andparadigms that are distinct from those of developed countries. It is notsustainable or viable for all countries to follow the example of developedcountries without causing the collapse of our Earth system. The ecologicalfootprint of the developed countries is between 3 and 5 times larger than theaverage ecological footprint that the Earth system can sustain without animpact on its vital cycles.

9.Sustainable development can only be achieved from a global perspective andcannot be achieved only in the national level. The wellbeing of a country isonly sustainable if it also serves to contribute to the wellbeing of the entireEarth system. The so-called developed countries are still far from reachingsustainable development.

10.Sustainable development should ensure equilibrium among the three pillars –social, economic, and environmental – which are interrelated, preserving thefundamental principle of common but differentiated responsibility.

II. THE NEW EMERGING CHALLENGE: RESTORING THE EQUILIBRIUM OF THE EARTHSYSTEM

11. The emerging challenges of the 21st Century are the product of exaggerated ambitionand accumulation of wealth concentrated in a few sectors, the exacerbation andcombination of different contradictions that were present in the last century.The various crises that exist in the areas of food, energy, the environment,climate, finance, water, and even institutions have reached chronic levels and arefeeding off of one another, in some cases to the point of no return.

12. Weare living an environmental crisis that, as it deepens, threatens the existenceof human beings and life as a whole.  The Earth is a living system and thesource of life. It is an indivisible, interdependent and interrelated communitycomprised of human beings, nature, the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere.The Earth system has intrinsic laws that regulate its functioning, articulatingthe physical, chemical, biological and ecological elements in a manner thatmakes life possible. Through the term Mother Earth, we express thisrelationship of belonging to a system and respect for our home.

13.Human activity is altering the dynamics and functioning of the Earth system toa degree never before seen. The capitalist system is the principal cause of theimbalance because it puts the rules of the market and the accumulation ofprofit above the laws of nature. Nature is not simply a sum of elements, it’snot a source of resources that can be exploited, modified, altered, privatized,commercialized and transformed without any consequences.

14.Human beings and nature are at the center of concerns for sustainabledevelopment. It is essential to get beyond the anthropocentric vision. Untilnow, no species besides Man has been able to modify the characteristics of theplanet in such a substantial way and in such a short period of time. It isessential to restore and guarantee the existence, integrity, interrelation,interaction and regeneration of the Earth system as a whole and of all of itscomponents in order to achieve a sustainable development that is capable ofconfronting the multiple crises facing humanity and the planet today.

III. TOOLS FOR FIXING THE PERSISTENT GAPS AND ACHIEVE SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT

15. To reestablish harmony with nature, we must recognize and respect the intrinsic laws of nature and its vital cycles. Not only do human beings have a right to ahealthy life, but so do the other components and species belonging to thesystem we call nature. In an interdependent and interrelated system like theplanet Earth, it is not possible to recognize the rights of just the human partof the system without affecting the whole. Just as human beings have rights,the Mother Earth also has the right to exist, the right to maintain its vitalcycles, the right to regeneration, the right to be free from structuralalteration, and the right to relate to the other parts of the Earth system. Inorder to reestablish balance with nature, it is necessary to clearly establishthe obligations of humans toward nature, and to recognize that nature hasrights that should be respected, promoted, and defended.

16. We have to end the system of consumption, waste and luxury. Millions of people aredying of hunger in the poorest parts of the globe, while the richest spendmillions of dollars are spent to combat obesity. Developed countries mustchange their unsustainable patterns of consumption, production, and wastethrough public policies, regulations, the conscious and active participation ofsociety, This includes promoting ethics that value human beings for what theyare, not what they have.

17. It is necessary to guarantee the human right to water, education, health,communication, transportation, energy and sanitation. The provision of theseservices must be essentially public and based on efficient social management,not private business. The principal goal should be common wellbeing and notprivate profit, in order to ensure that these services reach the poorest andmost marginalized sectors in an equitable manner.

18. States should ensure the right of their populations to proper nutrition bystrengthening food sovereignty policies that promote: a) food production byfarmers, indigenous peoples and small agricultural producers; b) access toland, water, seeds, credit and other resources for family and communityproducers; c) the development of social and public enterprises for foodproduction, distribution, and sale that prevent hoarding and contribute to thestability of food prices in domestic markets, thus halting speculativepractices and the destruction of local production; d) the right of citizens todefine and to know and have the proper information about what they consume, theway their food is produced, and its origins; e) the right to healthy, variedand nutritious food; f) the right to consume what is necessary and prioritizelocal production; g) practices that contribute to reestablishing harmony withnature, avoiding greater desertification, deforestation, and destruction ofbiological diversity; h) the promotion of the use of indigenous seeds andtraditional knowledge. Food production and commercialization must be sociallyregulated and cannot be left to free market forces.

19.Without water, there is no life. Humans and all living things have the right towater, but water also has rights. All States and peoples worldwide should worktogether in solidarity to ensure that loss of vegetation, deforestation, thepollution of the atmosphere and contamination are prevented from continuing toalter the hydrological cycle. These cause desertification, lack of food,temperature increase, sea level rise, migrations, acid rain, andphysical-chemical changes that could provoke the loss of genetic and speciesdiversity, damaging the health of ecosystems.

20.Forests are essential to the balance and integrity of planet Earth and a keyelement in the proper functioning of its ecosystems and the broader system ofwhich we are a part. Thus we cannot consider them as simple providers of goodsand services for human beings. The protection, preservation and recuperation offorests is necessary in order to reestablish the balance of the Earth system.Plantations that are planted for profit and promoted as carbon sinks andproviders of environmental services are not forests. Forests are notplantations that can be reduced to their capacity to capture carbon and provideenvironmental services. Native forests and woodlands are essential for the watercycle, the atmosphere, biodiversity, the prevention of flooding, and thepreservation of ecosystems. Forests are also home to indigenous peoples andcommunities. The preservation of forests should be pursued through integral andparticipatory management plans that should be financed with public funding fromdeveloped countries or specific taxes on the sectors with the greatestconsumption.

21. Itis essential to guarantee a real and effective reduction of greenhouse gases,particularly on the part of the developed countries historically responsiblefor climate change, in order to stabilize the increase in temperature to 1°Cduring this century. We must therefore strengthen the Kyoto Protocol with asecond period of commitments by developed countries, instead of replacing itwith a more flexible voluntary agreement. It is necessary to eliminate carbonmarket mechanisms and offsets so that real domestic reductions are made withinthe countries with said obligations. South Africa should not be another Cancun,delaying once again the central issue of substantive reductions in greenhousegas emissions.

22. Allforms of violence against women are incompatible with sustainable development.Violence done to women in militarily occupied territories, domestic or sexualviolence, and discrimination in the workplace and in public spheres areproblems we must solve. We must link the issue of the economic role of women tothe protection of nature.

23. Inorder for sustainable development to exist, it is essential to guarantee thefull application of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of IndigenousPeoples.

24.Under the framework of common but differentiated responsibilities establishedin the 1992 Rio Declaration, the so-called developed countries must assume andpay their historical ecological debt for having contributed the most to thedeterioration of the Earth system. The payment of this ecological debt bydeveloped countries to developing countries and the sectors most affected amongtheir own populations should replace to the greatest possible degree theecological damage provoked. Developed countries should transfer financialresources from public sources and also the effective transfer of socially andecologically appropriate technologies required by sovereign developingcountries.

25. Theenormous resources dedicated to defense, security and war budgets by developedcountries should be reduced. These resources should instead be used to addressthe effects of climate change and the imbalance with nature. It is inexcusablethat 1.5 trillion dollars in public funding are used on these budgets, while,to address the impacts of climate change in developing countries, they want todedicate just 100 billion dollars from public and private funds as well asmarket sources.

26. Afinancial transaction tax should be created to help build a SustainableDevelopment Fund to attend to the sustainable development challenges faced bydeveloping countries. This financing mechanism should generate new, stable andadditional resources for developing countries. A tax of 0.05% applied on aglobal level has the potential to capture $661 billion per year according toECLAC.[1] The mechanism of the international financial transaction tax can bebuilt in a voluntary and gradual manner with the participation of thosedeveloped and developing countries that wish to participate.

27. TheRio+20 Conference should not create market mechanisms with regard to nature,biodiversity and the so called environmental services: a) The logic of themarket and monetary valuation applied to environmental services andbiodiversity will generate greater inequality in the distribution of thoseresources, which are essential for humanity and Mother Earth; b) Theestablishment of these market mechanisms will deepen the imbalance with naturebecause they are driven by the search for maximum profits and not harmony withnature; c) It will affect the sovereignty of our States and peoples bygenerating new forms of property rights over the functions of nature that willbe in the hands of investors. These mechanisms are uncertain, volatile and thesource of financial speculation given that the bulk of the money they mobilizewill remain in the hands of intermediary actors.

28.Sustainable development requires a new international financial architecture toreplace the World Bank and the IMF with entities that are democratic andtransparent, that respect national priorities and national independence in theapplication of development strategies. These new institutions should have amajority representation by developing countries and should act according to theprinciples of solidarity and cooperation, rather than commercialization andprivatization.

29. Itis essential to create an effective Technology Transfer Mechanism that stemsfrom the demand and needs of the countries of the South for technologies thatare socially, culturally, and environmentally appropriate. Said mechanismshould not be a “show room” for the sale of technologies by rich countries. Inorder to promote the exchange of scientific and technical knowledge, it isessential to remove intellectual property barriers so that there might exist atrue transfer of environmentally friendly technologies from developed countriesto developing countries.

30.Intellectual property rights over genes, microorganisms and other forms of lifeare a threat to food sovereignty, biodiversity, access to medicine and otherelements that are essential for the survival of low-income populations. Allforms of intellectual property over life should be abolished.

31.Gross Domestic Product is not an adequate means of measuring the developmentand wellbeing of a society. Thus it is necessary to create indicators formeasuring the environmental destruction caused by certain economic activitiesin order to advance toward sustainable development in harmony with nature,integrating social and environmental aspects that are not aimed at thecommercialization of nature and its functions.

32.Respect for the sovereignty of States is essential in the management andprotection of nature under the framework of cooperation among States.

33. Noidentical solutions exist for all peoples. Human beings arediverse. Our peoples have their own unique cultures and identities. To destroya culture is to threaten the identity of an entire people. Capitalism attemptsto homogenize us all to convert us into consumers. There has not been, nor willthere ever be, a single model for life that can save the world. We live and actin a pluralistic world, and a pluralistic world should respect diversity, whichis itself synonymous with life. Respect for peaceful and harmoniouscomplementarity among the diverse cultures and economies, without exploitationor discrimination against any single one, is essential for saving the planet,humanity, and life.

34.Peace is essential for sustainable development. There is no worse aggressionagainst humanity and Mother Earth than war and violence. War destroys life, andit has a particularly strong impact on the poorest and most vulnerable. Nobodyand nothing is safe from war. Those that fight suffer, as do those that areforced to go without bread in order to feed the war. Wars squander life andnatural resources.

35. AnInternational Tribunal of Environmental and Climate Justice must be establishedto judge and sanction crimes against nature that transcend national borders,violating the rights of nature and affecting humanity.

36. Toachieve sustainable development, it is necessary to promote publicassociations, public-public associations among actors in different States,public-social associations among different social sectors, and public-privateassociations.

37. Theproblems affecting humanity and nature require the exercise of global democracythrough the development of mechanisms of consultation and decision-making suchas referendums, plebiscites, or popular consultations so that the citizens ofthe world as a whole may speak.

38.Sustainable development is incompatible with all forms of imperialism andneocolonialism. In order to stop imperialism and neocolonialism, it isessential to end the imposition of conditionalities, military interventions,coups and blackmail.

39. Thecollective global response that is needed to confront the crisis we facerequires structural changes. We must change the system – not the climate or theEarth system. In the hands of capitalism, everything is converted intomerchandise: water, earth genomes, ancestral cultures, justice, ethics andlife. It is essential to develop a pluralistic system based on the culture oflife and harmony among human beings and with nature; a system that promotessustainable development in the framework of solidarity, complementarity,equity, social and economic justice, social participation, respect fordiversity, and peace.

IV. THE GREEN ECONOMY AND ITS DANGEROUS AND FALSE SOLUTIONS

40. At aglobal scale, the supposed objective of the Green Economy of disassociatingeconomic growth from environmental deterioration is not viable. Those thatpromote the Green Economy promote a three-dimensional capitalism that includesphysical capital, human capital, and natural capital (rivers, wetlands,forests, coral reefs, biological diversity and other elements). For the GreenEconomy, the food crisis, the climate crisis and the energy crisis share acommon characteristic: the failed allocation of capital. As a result, they tryto treat nature as capital – “natural capital.”

41. TheGreen Economy considers it essential to put a price on the free services thatplants, animals and ecosystems offer to humanity in the struggle for theconservation of biodiversity, water purification, pollination of plants, theprotection of coral reefs and regulation of the climate. For the Green Economy,it is necessary to identify the specific functions of ecosystems andbiodiversity and assign them a monetary value, evaluate their current status,set a limit after which they will cease to provide services, and concretize ineconomic terms the cost of their conservation in order to develop a market foreach particular environmental service. For the Green Economy, the instrumentsof the market are powerful tools for managing the “economic invisibility ofnature.”

42. Oneof the examples most cited by the Green Economy is the initiative known as REDD(Reducing Emissions through Deforestation and Forest Degradation), whichconsists of isolating and measuring the capacity of the forest to capture andstore carbon dioxide in order to issue certificates for greenhouse gasemissions reductions that can be commercialized and acquired by companies indeveloped countries that cannot meet their mitigation commitments. In this way,the developing countries will end up financing the developed countries.

43. Itis wrong to attempt to fragment nature into “environmental services” with amonetary value for market exchange. We should not put a price on the capacityof forests to act as carbon sinks, nor promote their commercialization as doesREDD. The market for carbon credits based on forests will lead to: a)noncompliance with effective emission reduction commitments by developedcountries; b) the bulk of resources being appropriated by intermediaries andfinancial entities and rarely benefitting countries, indigenous peoples andforests themselves; c) the generation of speculative bubbles based on the saleand purchase of said certificates; and d) the establishment of new propertyrights over the capacity of forests to capture carbon dioxide, which will clashwith the sovereign rights of States and the indigenous peoples that live inforests. The promotion of market mechanisms based on the economic needs ofdeveloping countries is a new form of neocolonialism.

44. Thepostulates promoted under the Green Economy are wrong. The currentenvironmental and climate crisis is not a simple market failure. The solutionis not to put a price on nature. Nature is not a form of capital. It is wrongto say that we only value that which has a price, an owner, and brings profits.The market mechanisms that permit exchange among human beings and nations haveproven incapable of contributing to an equitable distribution of wealth. TheGreen Economy should not distort the fundamental principles of sustainabledevelopment.

45. Notall that glitters is gold. Not all that is labeled “green” is environmentallyfriendly. We must use the precautionary principle and deeply analyze thedifferent “green” alternatives that are presented before proceeding with theirexperimentation and implementation.

46.Nature cannot be subject to manipulation by new technologies withoutconsequences in the future. History shows us that many dangerous technologieshave been released in the market before their environmental or health impactsare known, or before their social and economic impacts on poor people anddeveloping countries are understood. This is currently the case withgenetically modified organisms, agrochemicals, biofuels, nanotechnology, andsynthetic biology. These technologies should be avoided.

47.Geoengineering and all forms of artificial manipulation of the climate shouldbe prohibited, for they bring the enormous risk of further destabilizing theclimate, biodiversity and nature.

48. Itis necessary to create public and multilateral mechanisms within the UnitedNations to evaluate in an independent manner and without conflict of interestthe potential environmental, health, social, and economic impacts of newtechnologies before they are spread. This mechanism must involve transparencyand social participation by potentially affected groups.

49.“Green” capitalism will bring about natural resource grabbing, displacinghumanity and nature from the essential elements needed for their survival. Thedrive for profit, instead of reestablishing harmony within the system, willprovoke even greater imbalances, concentrations of wealth, and speculativeprocesses.

V. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTINABLE DEVELOPMENT

50. Theinstitutional architecture of the United Nations for sustainable developmentshould establish a structure to promote balanced and equal treatment of thethree pillars: the economic, social, and environmental. This institutionalarchitecture should articulate and coordinate the different authoritiesinvolved in order to avoid overlapping efforts and achieve effectivecoordination.

51. TheEconomic Pillar should determine the sustainable development agendas ofeconomic and commercial organizations such as the WTO, the World Bank and IMF.Without an effective integration among these entities, the institutionalframework will be unable to define the economic policies necessary to achievesustainable development while respecting national priorities and nationalindependence and with transparent and socially acceptable management.

52. TheSocial Pillar should coordinate entities such as ILO, WHO, UNESCO, UN-Women,the Indigenous Permanent Forum and others in order to improve their actions andimpacts in the struggle for the eradication of poverty.

53. TheEnvironmental Pillar should stem from a better coordination and implementationof the different Conventions (UNFCCC, UNCCD, CBD) and the incorporation of allenvironmental issues including water.

54. Thecoordination of these three pillars should be under the auspices of a Councilfor Sustainable Development that is created on the basis of what is now theCommission on Sustainable Development. It should be at the level of a Councilthat would function as a subsidiary body of the General Assembly, guaranteeinga fundamental role for States, coordinating with the Economic and SocialCouncil, and with regular functioning to follow up on and implement the goalsand mechanisms agreed and resolutions adopted.

55.Developing countries should have a majority representation in said Council, andits functioning should be democratic and transparent.

56. TheCouncil for Sustainable Development should include mechanisms for theparticipation of civil society and non-governmental organizations especiallyorganizations representing workers, indigenous peoples, farmers, smallagricultural producers and fishermen, women, youth and consumers. The privatesector cannot have the same amount of influence as the social sectors, giventhat, by definition, its goal is to create profit rather than social wellbeing.The linking of the Sustainable Development Council with the different socialactors should occur through a Consultative Group.

Michele Maynard

Policy & Advocacy Officer

Pan African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA)

Continental Secretariat
michele@pacja.org

skype: michele.maynard1

www.pacja.org